Aluminium (or aluminum; see spelling differences) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery white, soft, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth’s crust. It makes up about 8% by weight of the Earth’s solid surface. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite.
CAS Registry Number:7429-90-5
Storage Temperature:Flammables area
Solubility:Soluble in hot water
Stability:Stable. Powder is flammable. Reacts very exothermically with halogens. Moisture and air sensitive. Incompatible with strong acids, caustics, strong oxidizing agents, halogenated hydrocarbons.
Usage:In manufacture of printing inks, in the aircraft industry.
Chemical Properties: silver foil, shot or powder
General Description: Aluminum metal held above melting point of 1220°F (660°C) for ease in handling. Cools and solidifies if released. Contact causes thermal burns. Plastic or rubber may melt or lose strength upon contact. Protective equipment designed for chemical exposure only is not effective against direct contact. Take care walking on the surface of a spill to avoid stepping into a pocket of molten aluminum below the crust. Do not attempt to remove aluminum impregnated clothing because of the danger of tearing flesh if there has been a burn.
Air & Water Reactions: Violent reaction with water; contact may cause an explosion or may produce a flammable gas (hydrogen). Moist air produces hydrogen gas. Does not burn on exposure to air.
Health Hazard: Contact causes severe burns to skin and eyes. Fire may produce irritating and/or toxic gases.
Fire Hazard: Substance is transported in molten form at a temperature above 705°C (1300°F). Violent reaction with water; contact may cause an explosion or may produce a flammable gas. Will ignite combustible materials (wood, paper, oil, debris, etc.). Contact with nitrates or other oxidizers may cause an explosion. Contact with containers or other materials, including cold, wet or dirty tools, may cause an explosion. Contact with concrete will cause spalling and small pops.
Reactivity Profile: Aluminum , Molten, is a reducing agent. Coating moderates or greatly moderates its chemical reactivity compared to the uncoated material. Reacts exothermically if mixed with metal oxides and heated (thermite process). Heating a mixture with copper oxides caused a strong explosion . Reacts with metal salts, mercury and mercury compounds, nitrates, sulfates, halogens, and halogenated hydrocarbons to form compounds that are sensitive to mechanical shock. A number of explosions in which ammonium nitrate and powdered aluminum were mixed with carbon or hydrocarbons, with or without oxidizing agents, have occurred. A mixture with powdered ammonium persulfate and water may explode . Heating a mixture with bismuth trioxide leads to an explosively violent reaction . Mixtures with finely divided bromates(also chlorates and iodates) of barium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium or zinc can explode by heat, percussion, and friction, . Burns in the vapor of carbon disulfide, sulfur dioxide, sulfur dichloride, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, or nitrogen peroxide, . A mixture with carbon tetrachloride exploded when heated to 153° C and also by impact. Mixing with chlorine trifluoride in the presence of carbon results in a violent reaction . Ignites in close contact with iodine. Three industrial explosions involving a photoflash composition containing potassium perchlorate with aluminum and magnesium powder have occurred . Is attacked by methyl chloride in the presence of small amounts of aluminum chloride to give flammable aluminum trimethyl. Give a detonable mixture with liquid oxygen. The reaction with silver chloride, once started, proceeds with explosive violence . In an industrial accident, the accidental addition of water to a solid mixture of sodium hydrosulfite and powdered aluminum caused the generation of SO2, heat and more water. The aluminum powder reacted with water and other reactants to generate more heat, leading to an explosion that killed five workers .
Lovastatin is a white, nonhygroscopic crystalline powder that is insoluble in water and sparingly soluble in ethanol, methanol, and acetonitrile.
1. Medical uses
The primary uses of lovastatin is for the treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of cardiovascular disease. It is recommended to be used only after other measures, such as diet, exercise, and weight reduction, have not improved cholesterol levels.
Lovastatin was isolated from the fungus Aspergillus terreus ,in August 1987 ,it was the first statin approved by the FDA.
In 1998, the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration ) placed a ban on the sale of dietary supplements derived from red yeast rice, which naturally contains lovastatin, arguing that products containing prescription agents require drug approval.
Lovastatin can be used as hypolipidemic agent for lowering cholesterol in those with hypercholesterolemia and so preventing cardiovascular disease.In plant physiology Lovastatin also has occasionally been used as inhibitor of cytokinin biosynthesis.
4. Mechanism of action
Lovastatin is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate. Mevalonate is a required building block for cholesterol biosynthesis and lovastatin interferes with its production by acting as a reversible competitive inhibitor for HMG-CoA, which binds to the HMG-CoA reductase. Lovastatin, being inactive in the native form, the form in which it is administered, is hydrolysed to the β-hydroxy acid form in the body; this is the active form.
CAS Registry Number:75330-75-5
Boiling Point:559.2 oC at 760 mmHg
Flash Point:185.3 °C
Refractive index:320 ° (C=0.5, CH3CN)
Solubility:0.0004 mg/mL at 25°C
Biological Activity:Potent, competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase (K i = 0.6 nM) therefore decreases cholesterol biosynthesis, in vitro and in vivo . Decreases CDK2, 4, 6 and cyclin E levels and induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in tumor cell lines in vitro .
Usage:An antihypercholesterolemic agent. A fungal metabolite, which is a potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase
Chemical Properties: White Solid
Usage: An antihypercholesterolemic agent. A fungal metabolite, which is a potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase
Biological Activity: Potent, competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase (K i = 0.6 nM) therefore decreases cholesterol biosynthesis, in vitro and in vivo . Decreases CDK2, 4, 6 and cyclin E levels and induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in tumor cell lines in vitro .
Potassium persulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula K2S2O8. Also known as potassium peroxydisulfate or KPS, it is a white solid that is highly soluble in water. This salt is a powerful oxidant, commonly used to initiate polymerizations.
Potassium persulphate is used as a food additive and it is also used in organic chemistry as an oxidizing agent for instance in the Elbs persulfate oxidation. Besides, this substance is also used as whitening agent with hydrogen peroxide in hair dye. Further more it is also an important role as initiator for emulsion polymerization.
CAS Registry Number:7727-21-1
Appearance:colourless odourless crystals or white powder
Boiling Point:1689 °C
Flash Point:Not combustible
Solubility:5 g/100 mL (20°C) in water
Stability:Stable. Strong oxidizer. Incompatible with strong reducing agents, organic materials, combustible materials.
Chemical Properties: colourless odourless crystals or white powder
General Description: A white crystalline solid. Specific gravity 2.477. Decomposes below 100°C.
Air & Water Reactions: Water soluble. Slowly decomposed by water. The salt rapidly liberates oxygen when heated, and especially so when wet.
Reactivity Profile: Potassium persulfate is an oxidizing agent. Noncombustible but accelerates the burning of combustible material. Potassium persulfate plus a little potassium hydroxide and water released sufficient heat and oxygen to ignite a polythene (polyethylene) liner in a container
Health Hazard： Inhalation, ingestion or contact (skin, eyes) with vapors or substance may cause severe injury, burns or death. Fire may produce irritating, corrosive and/or toxic gases. Runoff from fire control or dilution water may cause pollution.
Fire Hazard: These substances will accelerate burning when involved in a fire. Some may decompose explosively when heated or involved in a fire. May explode from heat or contamination. Some will react explosively with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil, clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire or explosion hazard.
General Information: As in any fire, wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, Msha/Niosh (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. Substance is noncombustible.
Extinguishing Media: Use extinguishing media most appropriate for the surrounding fire.
Handling: Avoid breathing dust, vapor, mist, or gas. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Storage: Store in a cool, dry place. Store in a tightly closed container.
Production of Potassium persulphate (CAS NO.7727-21-1):
Potassium persulfate can be prepared by electrolysis of a mixture between potassium sulfate and hydrogen sulfate at a high current density.
2 KHSO4 → K2S2O8 + H2
Potassium persulfate can still be prepared by adding potassium hydrogen sulfate (KHSO4) to an electrolyzed solution of ammonium hydrogen sulfate (NH4HSO4).
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO. ZnO is a white powder that is insoluble in water, and it is widely used as an additive in numerous materials and products including rubbers, plastics, ceramics, glass, cement, lubricants, paints, ointments, adhesives, sealants, pigments, foods (source of Zn nutrient), batteries, ferrites, fire retardants, and first-aid tapes. It occurs naturally as the mineral zincite, but most zinc oxide is produced synthetically.
Zinc oxide(CAS.NO:1314-13-2) may be found in many health care products. It is used, for example, in order to protect the skin from irritation. For this use, it is often found in diaper creams. It’s also used in special lotions that help soothe irritated, itchy skin as well as in preparations that are intended to soothe burns. An individual may also find zinc oxide in sunscreens, which have the job of protecting skin from the sun. Interestingly, this compound may even be included in some preparations that are used to treat the discomfort caused by hemorrhoids.
In addition to the ways zinc oxide may be helpful in health care, it also has many other uses. For example, it provides a basis for paint pigments, such as Chinese white, and it can be used as a filler for items that are made out of rubber. It may even be used as an additive in making fire retardants and ceramics.
Zinc oxide is widely used for concrete manufacturing. Addition of ZnO improves the processing time and the resistance of concrete against water.
As a food additive, zinc oxide is on the U.S. FDA’s list of generally recognized as safe, or GRAS, substances.
Zinc oxide is a constituent of cigarette filters. A filter consisting of charcoal impregnated with zinc oxide and iron oxide removes significant amounts of HCN and H2S from tobacco smoke without affecting its flavor.
Zinc white is used as a pigment in paints and is more opaque than lithopone, but less opaque than titanium dioxide. It is also used in coatings for paper. Chinese white is a special grade of zinc white used in artists’ pigments. It is also a main ingredient of mineral makeup.
Zinc oxide as a mixture with about 0.5% iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3) is called calamine and is used in calamine lotion. There are also two minerals, zincite and hemimorphite, which have been historically called calamine. When mixed with eugenol, a ligand, zinc oxide eugenol is formed, which has applications as a restorative and prosthodontic in dentistry.
Zinc oxide itself is non-toxic; however it is hazardous to inhale zinc oxide fumes, as generated when zinc or zinc alloys are melted and oxidized at high temperature. This problem occurs while melting brass because the melting point of brass is close to the boiling point of zinc. Exposure to zinc oxide in the air, which also occurs while welding galvanized (zinc plated) steel, can result in a nervous malady called metal fume fever. For this reason, typically galvanized steel is not welded, or the zinc is removed first.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The name is from Greek ἰοειδής ioeidēs, meaning violet or purple, due to the color of elemental iodine vapor.
Iodine adopts a variety of oxidation states, commonly ranging from (formally) I(VII) to I(-I), and including the intermediate states of I(V), I(III) and I(I). Practically, only the −1 oxidation state is of significance, being the form found in iodide salts and organoiodine compounds. Iodine is a Lewis acid. With electron donors such as triphenylphosphine and pyridine it forms a charge-transfer complex. With the iodide anion it forms the triiodide ion. Iodine and the iodide ion form a redox couple. I2 is easily reduced and I- is easily oxidized.
Iodine normally exists as a diatomic molecule with an I-I bond length of 270 pm, one of the longest single bonds known. The I2 molecules tend to interact via the weak van der Waals forces called the London dispersion forces, and this interaction is responsible for the higher melting point compared to more compact halogens, which are also diatomic. Since the atomic size of iodine is larger, its melting point is higher. The solid crystallizes as orthorhombic crystals. The crystal motif in the Hermann–Mauguin notation is Cmca (No 64), Pearson symbol oS8. The I-I bond is relatively weak, with a bond dissociation energy of 36 kcal/mol, and most bonds to iodine are weaker than for the lighter halides. One consequence of this weak bonding is the relatively high tendency of I2 molecules to dissociate into atomic iodine.
CAS Registry Number:7553-56-2
Appearance:violet-black crystals with a metallic luster and a sharp odor.
Boiling Point:184.3 °C at 760 mmHg
Storage Temperature:Store at RT
Solubility:0.3 g/L (20 oC)
Chemical Properties:Grey to purple solid
General Description:Violet-black crystals with a metallic luster and a sharp odor. Mp: 133.5°C, bp: 185°C. Emits toxic vapor at room conditions; vapor becomes visibly purple when its concentration builds up in a confined space. Nearly insoluble in water but very soluble in aqueous solutions of iodides.
Reactivity Profile:Iodine is an oxidizing agent. Reacts vigorously with reducing materials. Incompatible with powdered metals in the presence of water (ignites), with gaseous or aqueous ammonia (forms explosive products), with acetylene (reacts explosively), with acetaldehyde (violent reaction), with metal azides (forms yellow explosive iodoazides), with metal hydrides (ignites), with metal carbides (ignites easily), with potassium and sodium (forms shock-senstive explosive compounds) and with alkali-earth metals (ignites). Incompatible with ethanol, formamide, chlorine, bromine, bromine trifluoride, chlorine trifluoride.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The name is from Greek ἰοειδής ioeidēs, meaning violet or purple, due to the color of elemental iodine vapor.
Iodine(CAS.NO:7553-56-2) is a chemical element. The body needs iodine but cannot make it. The needed iodine must come from the diet. As a rule, there is very little iodine in food, unless it has been added during processing, which is now the case with salt. Most of the world’s iodine is found in the ocean, where it is concentrated by sea life, especially seaweed.
Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition, and industrially in the production of acetic acid and certain polymers. Iodine’s relatively high atomic number, low toxicity, and ease of attachment to organic compounds have made it a part of many X-ray contrast materials in modern medicine. Iodine has only one stable isotope. A number of iodine radioisotopes are also used in medical applications.
The production of ethylenediamine dihydroiodide, provided as a nutritional supplement for livestock, consumes a large fraction of available iodine. Another significant use is as a co-catalyst for the production of acetic acid by the Monsanto and Cativa processes. In these technologies, which support the world’s demand for acetic acid, hydroiodic acid converts the methanol feedstock into methyl iodide, which undergoes carbonylation. Hydrolysis of the resulting acetyl iodide regenerates hydroiodic acid and gives acetic acid.
As a component of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), iodine is essential to human life. Without sufficient iodine, your body is unable to synthesize these hormones, and because the thyroid hormones regulate metabolism in every cell of the body and play a role in virtually all physiological functions, an iodine deficiency can have a devastating impact on your health and well-being.
Iodine reduces thyroid hormone and can kill fungus, bacteria, and other microorganisms such as amoebas. A specific kind of iodine called potassium iodide is also used to treat (but not prevent) the effects of a radioactive accident.
Regulating thyroid hormones
The synthesis of thyroid hormones is tightly controlled. When the amount of thyroid hormone in your blood drops, the pituitary gland secretes a hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). As its name suggests, TSH then stimulates the thyroid gland to increase its uptake of iodine from the blood, so that more thyroxine (T4) can be synthesized. When necessary, thyroxine is then converted to the metabolically active triiodothyronine (T3), a process that involves removing one iodine atom from T4.
Several other physiological functions for iodine have been suggested. Iodine may help inactivate bacteria, hence its use as a skin disinfectant and in water purification. Iodine may also play a role in the prevention of fibrocystic breast disease, a condition characterized by painful swelling in the breasts, by modulating the effect of the hormone estrogen on breast tissue. Finally, researchers hypothesize that iodine deficiency impairs the function of the immune system and that adequate iodine is necessary to prevent miscarriages.
Pyridine is a colourless hygroscopic liquid with a characteristic odour. It is a basic heterocyclic compound containing one nitrogen atom and five carbon atoms in its molecules and is used as a solvent and in preparing other organic chemicals. A flammable, colorless or yellowish liquid base that results from the dry distillation of organic matter containing nitrogen, has a penetrating odor, and is used in analytical chemistry and in the manufacture of various drugs and vitamins.
Pyridine(CAS.NO:110-86-1) is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N. It is structurally related to benzene, with one methine group (=CH-) replaced by a nitrogen atom. The pyridine ring occurs in many important compounds, including azines and the vitamins niacin and pyridoxal.
Pyridine is miscible with water and virtually all organic solvents. It is weakly basic, and with hydrochloric acid it forms a crystalline hydrochloride salt that melts at 145–147 °C. Most chemical properties of pyridine are typical of a heteroaromatic compound. In organic reactions, pyridine behaves both as a tertiary amine, undergoing protonation, alkylation, acylation, and N-oxidation at the nitrogen atom, and as an aromatic compound, undergoing nucleophilic substitutions.
Because of the electronegative nitrogen in the pyridine ring, the molecule is relatively electron deficient. It, therefore, enters less readily electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, which are characteristic of benzene derivatives. However, unlike benzene and its derivatives, pyridine is more prone to nucleophilic substitution and metalation of the ring by strong organometallic bases. The reactivity of pyridine can be distinguished for three chemical groups. With electrophiles, electrophilic substitution takes place where pyridine expresses aromatic properties. With nucleophiles, pyridine reacts via its 2nd and 4th carbon atoms and thus behaves similar to imines and carbonyls. The reaction with many Lewis acids results in the addition to the nitrogen atom of pyridine, which is similar to the reactivity of tertiary amines. The ability of pyridine and its derivatives to oxidize, forming amine oxides (N-oxides), is also a feature of tertiary amines.
The nitrogen center of pyridine features a basic lone pair of electrons. Because this lone pair is not part of the aromatic ring, pyridine is a base, having chemical properties similar to those of tertiary amines. The pKa of the conjugate acid is 5.25. Pyridine is protonated by reaction with acids and forms a positively charged aromatic polyatomic ion called pyridinium. The bond lengths and bond angles in pyridine and pyridinium are almost identical. The pyridinium cation is isoelectronic with benzene. Pyridinium p-toluenesulfonate (PPTS) is an illustrative pyridinium salt; it is produced by treating pyridine with p-toluenesulfonic acid.
Pyridine can act as Lewis base, donating its pair of electron to a Lewis acid as in the sulfur trioxide pyridine complex.
Pyridine itself is a relatively weak ligand in forming complexes with transition metal ions. For example, it forms a 1:1 complexes with nickel(II), Ni2+, and copper(II), Cu2+, with logK1 values of ca. 1.9 and 2.6, respectively. The infrared spectra of pyridine complexes have been discussed in detail. Picolinic acid, which is a substituted derivative of pyridine, forms strong complexes due to the chelate effect; 2,2′-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline, which can also be viewed as substituted derivatives of pyridine, also form strong complexes, such as in Ferroin, which can be used as an redox indicator in the quantitative analysis of iron.
The η6 coordination mode, as occurs in η6 benzene complexes, is observed only in sterically encumbered derivatives that block the nitrogen center.